Bushidou 武士道  chuong 1   25/01/2007

Ong Nitobe Inazou新渡戸稲造


武士道七つの徳  7 đức của Buhi-do (“Bushi” tức là Samurai, “do” ý nhĩa là Đạo)

1)義Nghĩa Rectitude


Đã là võ sĩ thì khi cần phải chết sẽ không e dè cái chết, khi cần bắn (giết) sẽ bắn (giết). NGHĨA là đạo lý của con người sống trên đời.


  Mencius, is a straight and narrow path which a man ought to take to regain the lost paradise.



2) Dũng   Courage


Đã là võ sĩ thì khi gặp việc đúng thì phải làm. Gặp người khó gặp nạn phải ra tay giúp đỡ. Thấy việc nghĩa không làm thì không có Dũng.


    It is true courage to live when it is right to live, ang to die only when it is right to die.



3)  Nhận   Benevolense


    Đã là võ sĩ thì phải có lòng thương người.


   We knew benevolense was a tender virtue and mother –like.



4)  名誉Danh Dự  Honour


Đã là võ sĩ thì phải biết hổ thẹn, biết giữ gìn danh dự của bản thân

The life of man is like going a long distance with a heavy load upon the shoulders.



5)  Lễ   Respect


Đã là võ sĩ thì không được khinh địch, phải kính trọng ngay cả địch thủ của mình.

Lễ thể hiện sự quan tâm của mình với người khác


The end of all etiquette is to cultivate your mind.



6) 忠義Trung Nghĩa Loyalty


Đã là võ sĩ thì phải biết trung nghĩa với bề trên(vua) của mình.


Bushido held that the interest of the family and of the members thereof is intact, one and anseparable.



7)  誠  Honesty


Đã là võ sĩ thì một lời nói ra phải giữ lời. Nói dối, biện bạch... bị coi là kẻ yếu hèn.


Sincerity is the end and the beginning of all things.



About ten years ago, while spending a few days under the hospitable roof of the distinguished Belgian jurist, the lamented M. de Laveleye, our conversation turned during one of our rambles, to the subject of religion. “Do you mean to say,” asked the venrable professor, “that you have no religious instrution in your schools?” On my replying in te negative, he suddenly halted in astonishment, and in a voice which I shall not easily forget, he repeated “No religion! How do you impart moral education?” The question stunned me at the time. I cuold give no ready answer, for the moral precepts I learned in my childhood days were not given in schools; and not until I began to analyse the different elements that formed my notions of right and wrong, did I find that it was Bushido that breathed them into my nosrils. The direct inception of this little book is due to the frequent queries put by my wife as to the reasons why such and such ideas and customs prevail in Japan.


Chivalry is a flower no less indigenous to the soil of Japan than its emblem, the cherry blossom; nor is it a dried specimen of an antique virtue preserved in the herbarium of our history. It is still a living object of power and beauty among us; and if it assumes no tangible shape or form, it not the less scents the moral atmosphere, and makes us aware that we are still under its potent spell. The conditions of society which brought it forth and nourished it have long disappeared; but as those far-off stars which once were and are not, still continue to shed their rays upon us, so the light of chivalry which was a child of feudalism, still illuminates our moral path, surviving its mother institution. It is a pleasure to me to reflect upon this subject in the language of Burke, who uttered the well-known touching eulogy over the neglected bier of its European prototype.


Bushido, then, is the code of moral principles which the knights were required or instructed to obserbe. It is not a written code; at best it consists of a few maxims handed down from mouth to mouth or coming from the pen of som well-known warrrior or savant More frequently it is code unuttered and unwritten, possessing all the more the powerful sanction of veritable deed, and of a law written on the fleshly tablets of the heart. It was fuonded not on the creation of one brain, however able, or on the life of a single personage, however renowned. It was an organic growth of decades and centuries of military career. It, perhaps, fills the same position in the history of ethics that the English Constitution does in political history; yet it has had nothing to compare with the Magna Charta or the Habeas Corpus Act.



For propriety, springing as it does from motives of benevolence and modesty, and actuated by tender feeling toward the sensibilities of other, is ever a graceful expression of sympathy.

In America. When you make a gift, you sing its praise to the recipient; in Japan we depreciate or slander it. The uderlying idea with you is, “This is a nice gift; if it were not nice I wuold not dare give it to you; for it will be an insult to give you anything but what is nice.” In contrast to this, our logic runs: “You will not accept anything I can lay at your feet except as a token of my good will; so accept this, not for its intrinsic value, but as a token. It will be an insult to your worth to call the best gift good enough for you.” Place the two ideas side by side, and we see that the ultimate idea is one and the same. Neither is “awfully funny.” The American speaks of the material which makes th gift; the Japanese speaks of the spirit which prompts the gift.